Psychiatry .



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Glossary of psychiatry
Glossary of medicine

The word psyche comes from the ancient Greek for soul or butterfly. The fluttering insect appears in the coat of arms of Britain's Royal College of Psychiatrists

The term "psychiatry" was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808 and literally means the 'medical treatment of the soul' (psych- "soul" from Ancient Greek psykhē "soul"; -iatry "medical treatment" from Gk. iātrikos "medical" from iāsthai "to heal"). A medical doctor specializing in psychiatry is a psychiatrist. (For a historical overview, see Timeline of psychiatry.)

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psychiatry.

Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations and psychological tests may be conducted. On occasion, neuroimaging or other neurophysiological techniques are used. Mental disorders are often diagnosed in accordance with clinical concepts listed in diagnostic manuals such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited and used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5) was published in 2013 which re-organized the larger categories of various diseases and expanded upon the previous edition to include information/insights that are consistent with current research.

The combined treatment of psychiatric medication and psychotherapy has become the most common mode of psychiatric treatment in current practice, but contemporary practice also includes a wide variety of other modalities, e.g., assertive community treatment, community reinforcement, and supported employment. Treatment may be delivered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or on other aspects of the disorder in question. An inpatient may be treated in a psychiatric hospital. Research and treatment within psychiatry as a whole are conducted on an interdisciplinary basis with other professionals, such as epidemiologists, nurses, or psychologists.

"Psychiatry, more than any other branch of medicine, forces its practitioners to wrestle with the nature of evidence, the validity of introspection, problems in communication, and other long-standing philosophical issues" (Guze, 1992, p.4).

The field of psychiatry has many subspecialties that require additional training and certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). Such subspecialties include:

Addiction psychiatry
Brain Injury Medicine
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Clinical neurophysiology
Forensic psychiatry
Geriatric psychiatry
Hospice and palliative medicine
Pain medicine
Psychosomatic medicine (also known as consultation-liaison psychiatry)
Sleep medicine

Additional psychiatry subspecialties, for which ABPN does not offer certification, include:

Cross-cultural psychiatry
Emergency psychiatry
Learning disability
Neurodevelopmental disorder
Cognition diseases as in various forms of dementia
Biological psychiatry
Community psychiatry
Global Mental Health
Military psychiatry
Social psychiatry

Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system

The Greeks also created early manuscripts about mental disorders. In the 4th century BCE, Hippocrates theorized that physiological abnormalities may be the root of mental disorders. In 4th to 5th Century B.C. Greece, Hippocrates wrote that he visited Democritus and found him in his garden cutting open animals. Democritus explained that he was attempting to discover the cause of madness and melancholy. Hippocrates praised his work. Democritus had with him a book on madness and melancholy. During the 5th century BCE, mental disorders, especially those with psychotic traits, were considered supernatural in origin, a view which existed throughout ancient Greece and Rome, as well as Egyptian regions. Religious leaders often turned to versions of exorcism to treat mental disorders often utilizing methods that many consider to be cruel or barbaric methods. Trepanning was one of these methods used throughout history.

The Islamic Golden Age fostered early studies in Islamic psychology and psychiatry, with many scholars writing about mental disorders. The Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, also known as "Rhazes", wrote texts about psychiatric conditions in the 9th century. As chief physician of a hospital in Baghdad, he was also the director of one of the first psychiatric wards in the world. Two of his works in particular, El-Mansuri and Al-Hawi, provide descriptions and treatments for mental illnesses.

Controversy and criticism

Controversy has often surrounded psychiatry, and the term anti-psychiatry was coined by psychiatrist David Cooper in 1967 and was later made popular by Thomas Szasz. The basic premise of anti-psychiatry is that: psychiatrists attempt to maliciously classify "normal" people as "deviant;" psychiatric treatments are ultimately more damaging than helpful to patients; and psychiatry's history involves (what may now be seen as) dangerous treatments, such as the frontal lobectomy (commonly called, a lobotomy). Several former patient groups have been formed often referring to themselves as "survivors."

Additionally, the Church of Scientology (through one of its self-described "Humanitarian Efforts"[126]) created a "museum" in Los Angeles, CA (USA) which purports to show the evolution of the "evils" of psychiatry and psychology over time. The specific Scientology-related organization, the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR), is entirely devoted to the Anti-Psychiatry movement. That said, there has been a great deal of criticism about the veracity of specific information provided to the public and the conclusions drawn within the "exhibits."

French literary critic Michel Foucault has performed histories of psychiatry which are foundational to critical theory.

See also
Medical psychology
Biopsychiatry controversy
Telemental health
Bullying in psychiatry
Psychiatry organizations
Psychiatry Innovation Lab
List of psychology awards